同情移民遭遇

日内瓦——十月数百名非洲移民淹死在意大利兰佩杜萨岛附近水域的悲惨命运登上了国际头条,并罕见地引发了人们对移民危险境遇的同情与思考。但死亡人数之多是这次灾难唯一的特殊之处。对兰佩杜萨岛居民而言,涉及难民和移民的沉船事故其实是家常便饭:短短一周后,又有一艘载有叙利亚和巴勒斯坦难民的船只在岛屿海岸线外倾覆,造成超过30人死亡。

2013年类似悲剧表明上述灾难并不限于欧洲或地中海海岸,但之前的无数次事故其实早就已经证明了这一点。11月,一艘满载移民的船只在美国海岸搁浅导致近30名海地人丧生——这是10月以来加勒比海北部发生的第三起类似事件。沿墨美边境部署的复杂边境控制导致试图穿越偏远沙漠的移民活活饿死在路上。在亚太地区,今年已经有数百名试图偷渡澳大利亚的移民及难民淹死在孟加拉湾。

富裕国家地区陷入到边境控制不仅要满足本国人口需要、而且要承担对偷渡入境者责任的两难局面。这些问题其实早已是老生常谈:国界发明后就有人试图越境,无论是办理正规手续还是偷偷摸摸。无论移民想要寻找经济机会还是躲避暴力或环境灾难,东道国的反应往往是欢迎和谨慎相结合。

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