La política climática del carbón

COPENHAGUE – En el Tratado de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático de 1992, el mundo se comprometió a “evitar interferencias antropocéntricas peligrosas en el sistema climático”. Con todo, desde ese entonces las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero han seguido aumentando significativamente.

Los Estados Unidos han demostrado ser los principales rezagados del mundo, que se negaron a firmar el Protocolo de Kyoto de 1997 o adoptar cualquier control interno efectivo de emisiones. A medida que se acerca la cumbre global de Copenhague en diciembre para negociar un instrumento sucesor del Protocolo de Kyoto, los Estados Unidos son una vez más la principal preocupación. Incluso ahora, la política estadounidense sigue estando fuertemente dividida en cuanto al tema del cambio climático –aunque el Presidente Barack Obama tiene nuevas oportunidades para desbloquear la situación.

Un año después del Tratado de 1992, el Presidente Bill Clinton intentó introducir un impuesto a la energía que habría ayudado a los Estados Unidos a empezar a reducir su dependencia de los combustibles fósiles. La propuesta no sólo fracasó sino que provocó una reacción política en contra. Cuando se adoptó el Protocolo de Kyoto en 1997, Clinton ni siquiera lo envío al senado estadounidense para su ratificación, a sabiendas de que sería rechazado. El Presidente George W. Bush desconoció el Protocolo en 2001 y prácticamente no hizo nada por el cambio climático durante su presidencia.

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