La politique climatique du roi Charbon

COPENHAGUE – Le Traité des Nations Unies sur le changement climatique signé en 1992 est un engagement du monde à « éviter les interférences anthropogéniques dangereuses dans le système climatique. » Depuis, pourtant, les émissions de gaz n’ont cessé de monter en flèche.

Les États-Unis se sont montrés particulièrement mauvais élève en refusant de signer le Protocole de Kyoto de 1997 ou d’adopter tout contrôle efficace des émissions. A l’approche du Sommet global de Copenhague en décembre pour négocier un successeur au Protocol de Kyoto, les Etats-Unis redeviennent le centre des attentions. Encore aujourd’hui, l’Amérique reste profondément divisée sur le changement climatique, bien que le président Barack Obama ait de nouvelles possibilités pour désengorger la situation.

Un an après le traité de 1992, le président Bill Clinton avait tenté de faire passer une taxe énergie qui aurait permis aux États-Unis de réduire sa dépendance sur les énergies fossiles. La proposition n’a pas seulement échoué, elle a provoqué une violente réaction politique. Lorsque le Protocole de Kyoto fut adopté en 1997, Clinton ne le transmit même pas au Sénat américain pour être ratifié, sachant pertinemment qu’il serait rejeté. Le président George W. Bush répudiât le Protocol de Kyoto en 2001 et ne fit pas grand chose pour combattre le changement climatique durant sa présidence.

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