Le Discours secret de Khrouchtchev et la fin du communisme

En histoire, certains événements paraissent insignifiants de premier abord ou bien leur signification reste cachée jusqu’au jour où ils se révèlent bouleversants. Il y a 50 ans, nous avons connu un de ces moments, lors de ce qu’on appelle « le discours secret » de Nikita Khrouchtchevdevant le Vingtième congrès du Parti communiste d’Union soviétique. Son importance le situe, je dirais, comme l’un des événements cruciaux du vingtième siècle, entre la révolution bolchevique de 1917 et le déclenchement de la guerre par Hitler en 1939.

À cette époque, le mouvement communiste semblait surfer sur la vague de l’histoire et pas seulement en Union soviétique. Au milieu des années 1950, le communisme lançait une offensive sur l’Europe, ainsi que dans le Tiers-monde émergent. Le capitalisme semblait sur le déclin. Toutes les imperfections du communisme étaient considérées comme temporaires, de simples accrocs sur le chemin vers une société plus juste en pleine création. Un tiers de l’humanité considérait que l’Union soviétique mènerait le monde vers le socialisme mondial.

Le Vingtième congrès a mis fin à tout cela. Ce fut le moment de vérité, le grand nettoyage interne des brutalités du stalinisme. Le discours de Khrouchtchev devant le Congrès a inspiré bien des doutes et des hésitations dans tout le mouvement communiste à travers le monde.

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