John Maynard Keynes Globe Photos/ZUMAPRESS

Keynesova Obecná teorie osmdesátiletá

LONDÝN – John Maynard Keynes v roce 1935 napsal Georgi Bernardu Shawovi: „Jsem přesvědčen, že píšu knihu o ekonomické teorii, která z velké části radikálně změní – předpokládám, že ne ihned, ale během příštích deseti let – způsob, jímž svět uvažuje o svých ekonomických problémech.“ A vskutku, Keynesovo magnum opus, Obecná teorie zaměstnanosti, úroku a peněz, vydané v únoru 1936, proměnilo ekonomii i tvorbu hospodářských politik. Obstojí Keynesova teorie i dnes, po osmdesáti letech?

Dva prvky Keynesova odkazu se zdají jisté. Zaprvé, Keynes vynalezl makroekonomiku – teorii výstupu jako celku. Označil svou teorii za „obecnou,“ aby ji odlišil od prekeynesiánské teorie, která předpokládala konkrétní úroveň výstupu – plnou zaměstnanost.

Objasněním toho, jak hospodářství může uvíznout ve stavu „podzaměstnanosti,“ Keynes zpochybnil ústřední představu ortodoxní ekonomie své doby: že ceny souběžně pročišťují trhy se všemi komoditami, včetně práce. A jeho výpad přinesl nový rozměr do tvorby politik: vlády mohou potřebovat hospodařit se schodky, aby zachovaly plnou zaměstnanost.

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