كينز في مواجهة الكلاسيكيين الجدد: الجولة الثانية

لندن ـ في عام 1936 وضع رجل الاقتصاد جون ماينارد كينز "النظرية العامة في تشغيل العمالة، والفائدة، والمال" بهدف "طرح قضية الانقسامات العميقة في الرأي بين الزملاء من أهل الاقتصاد، والتي كادت تؤدي إلى تدمير النفوذ العملي للنظرية الاقتصادية...". وبعد مرور سبعين عاماً ما زال خبراء الاقتصاد من الوزن الثقيل يمسكون بخناق بعضهم البعض بشأن قضايا لم تتغير تقريباً منذ ثلاثينيات القرن العشرين.

وف أحدث شجار من هذا النوع يشتبك نصير الكينزية الجديدة بول كروجمان من جامعة برينستون ونصير الكلاسيكية الجديدة جون كوشرين من جامعة شيكاغو. فمؤخراً نشر كروجمان مقالاً في إحدى الصحف تحت عنوان "كيف أخطأ أهل الاقتصاد إلى هذا الحد في فهم الأمر برمته؟". يقول كروجمان في مقاله: "لم يكن في الاقتصاد شيء يشير إلى احتمال حدوث مثل ذلك النوع من الانهيار الذي حدث في العام الماضي".

والسبب وراء ذلك هو أن "خبراء الاقتصاد كمجموعة خلطوا بين الجمال المتشح بالرياضيات المبهرة وبين الحقيقة". وعلى هذا فقد قدموا "رؤية "مثالية لاقتصاد حيث يتفاعل الأفراد العقلانيين في سوق تتسم بالكمال". ولكن من المؤسف أن "هذه الرؤية المطهرة للاقتصاد قادت أغلب خبراء الاقتصاد إلى تجاهل كل الأمور التي كان من المحتمل أن تسوء". لذا فقد بات لزاماً على خبراء الاقتصاد الآن أن يتقبلوا "أهمية السلوك غير العقلاني وغير المتوقع في كثير من الأحيان، وأن يتصدوا لأوجه القصور في السوق والتي كثيراً ما تتسم بالخصوصية، وأن يتقبلوا أن نشوء نظرية اقتصادية أنيقة شاملة لكل شيء ما زالت بعيدة المنال".

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