Kenya elephants Erik Jepson/Flickr

Gute Zäune sichern das Überleben von Arten

NAIROBI – Afrikanischen Ländern wird oft vorgeworfen, den Herausforderungen des Umweltschutzes nicht gerecht zu werden. Häufig berufen sich Beobachter auf Lebensräume, die angesichts des Bevölkerungswachstums verloren gehen, auf Bodendegradation und Industrialisierung. Der häufigste Vorwurf von allen lautet, dass zunehmende Wilderei Arten wie Elefanten und Nashörner gefährdet.

In Kenia indes ist ein innovatives und umfangreiches Naturschutzprojekt im Gange. Die gemeinnützige Stiftung Rhino Ark in den Aberdare-Bergen in Zentralkenia sollte ursprünglich dem Schutz des stark gefährdeten Spitzmaulnashorns vor Wilderern dienen und wird nun von genau den Menschen unterstützt, die sich früher vielleicht dagegen gewehrt haben: Die lokale Bevölkerung in einigen der ertragreichsten Anbaugebiete des Landes.

1988 hatten Naturschützer beschlossen, einen Elektrozaun zu finanzieren und zu errichten, um einen an das Land von Kleinbauern angrenzenden Bereich des Aberdare-Nationalparks zu schützen. Der Zaun sollte menschliches Eindringen und Beeinträchtigungen der natürlichen Lebensräume im Nationalpark verhindern. Er bot aber zugleich den Bauern Schutz, deren Ernten regelmäßig von herumtrampelnden Elefanten und anderen Wildtieren zerstört wurden. Die ortsansässigen Bauern begrüßten die Initiative, was die Entscheidung für die Ausweitung der Einzäunung auf die gesamte Aberdare-Bergkette beeinflusste.

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