Proč daně z bohatství nestačí

CAMBRIDGE – Měly by vyspělé země zavést daně z bohatství jako prostředek stabilizace a snížení veřejného dluhu ve střednědobém výhledu? Obvykle konzervativní Mezinárodní měnový fond vyjádřil myšlence překvapivě ráznou podporu. MMF kalkuluje, že pokud by se rychle a nečekaně zavedl jednorázový 10% odvod z bohatství, mohl by řadu evropských zemí vrátit k předkrizovým poměrům veřejného dluhu k HDP. To je poutavý nápad.

Dnes, kdy se nezaměstnanost stále drží na úrovních recese a sociální normy napíná hluboká ekonomická nerovnost, je morální opodstatněnost daně z bohatství podmanivější než obvykle. A kdyby bylo skutečně možné zajistit, že odvod z bohatství bude dočasný, měla by taková daň v zásadě mnohem méně pokřivující účinek než zavedení vyšších mezních měr zdanění příjmu. Avšak přestože daň z bohatství může být rozumným způsobem, jak zemi pomoci vyškrábat se z hluboké fiskální propadliny, nejedná se bohužel o všelék.

V prvé řadě vzestup výnosů z dočasných daní z bohatství může být velmi prchavý. Ekonom Barry Eichengreen kdysi zkoumal zavedení daní z majetku po první a druhé světové válce. Zjistil, že vzhledem k úniku kapitálu a politickému tlaku na odklad byly výsledky často zklamáním.

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