Fehler in der Entwicklungshilfe

MUMBAI – Der enorme Graben zwischen den reichsten und ärmsten Ländern der Erde bleibt eines der größten moralischen Dilemmas des Westens. Auch für die Entwicklungsökonomie stellt er eine der größten Herausforderungen dar. Wissen wir wirklich, wie wir Staaten dabei helfen können, die Armut zu überwinden?

In seinem eloquent geschriebenen und umfassend recherchierten neuen Buch The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality ruft Angus Deaton von der Princeton University zur Vorsicht auf. Für diejenigen, die sich für die Armut der Welt interessieren, ist es zweifellos das wichtigste Buch über Entwicklungshilfe seit langer Zeit.

Deaton ist der Ansicht, dass westliche Hilfe, anstatt das Los der Empfänger zu verbessern, viel zu oft nur die Schuldgefühle der Geber mildert. Dies ist insbesondere dann der Fall, wenn naive Hilfsmaßnahmen einen dysfunktionalen Status Quo festigen. Obwohl Deaton einige Initiativen unterstützt, die medizinisches und technisches Wissen vermitteln, stellt er die Frage, ob die große Mehrheit der Hilfsmaßnahmen wohl den grundlegenden hippokratischen Lackmustest des „vorrangigen Vermeidens von Schaden“ bestehen würde.

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