Pošetilosti kolem zahraniční pomoci

BOMBAJ – Obrovská propast mezi nejbohatšími a nejchudšími zeměmi světa je i nadále jedním z velkých morálních dilemat Západu. Zároveň patří mezi největší problémy ekonomie rozvoje. Opravdu víme, jak pomáhat státům s překonáváním chudoby?

Ve své lapidárně napsané a do hloubky promyšlené nové knize Velký únik: Zdraví, bohatství a původ nerovnostinabádá ekonom Angus Deaton z Princetonské univerzity k opatrnosti. Pro ty, kdo se zajímají o chudobu ve světě, je to bezesporu nejdůležitější studie rozvojové pomoci, která za dlouhou dobu vyšla.

Deaton naznačuje, že západní pomoc až příliš často slouží spíše k zahnání pocitu provinilosti dárce než ke zlepšení situace příjemců. Zejména to platí v případech, kdy naivně poskytovaná pomoc posiluje nefunkční status quo. Ačkoliv Deaton podporuje vybrané iniciativy, zejména ty, které šíří lékařské a technologické znalosti, zároveň si klade otázku, zda by drtivá většina poskytované pomoci vůbec prošla základním Hippokratovým testem – „především neškodit“.

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