Chris JL/Flickr

Где решение проблемы неравенства?

КЕМБРИДЖ – Читая новую оказывающую огромное влияние на умы книгу Томаса Пикетти Капитал в двадцать первом веке, можно сделать вывод, что в мире не было столько неравенства со времен баронов-разбойников и королей. Это странно, поскольку, читая другую отличную новую книгу Ангуса Дитона Великий побег (рецензию на которую я недавно делал), можно решить, что сегодня мир равноправен, как никогда.

Так какой же взгляд является верным? Ответ зависит от того, смотрим ли мы на страны по отдельности или же смотрим на весь мир в целом.

Всеобъемлющим фактом в книге Дитона является то, что в течение последних нескольких десятилетий несколько миллиардов человек в развивающихся странах, особенно в Азии, выбрались из действительно отчаянной бедности. Те же механизмы, которые увеличили неравенство в богатых страна, подняли игровое поле в глобальных масштабах для миллиардов людей. Глядя издалека и давая, скажем, индийцу тот же вес, что и американцу или французу, за последние 30 лет произошли величайшие во всей человеческой истории улучшения множества различных аспектов, связанных с бедностью.

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