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Dov’è il problema della disuguaglianza?

CAMBRIDGE – Leggendo il nuovo e autorevole libro Capital in the Twenty-First Century di Thomas Piketty si potrebbe giungere alla conclusione che il mondo non è così diverso dai tempi dei baroni ladroni. Strano, perché invece leggendo un altro eccellente libro, quale The Great Escape di Angus Deaton (che ho recentemente preso in esame in un mio articolo), si evince che il mondo è più equo che mai.

Quale visione è giusta? Dipende se si guarda solo ai singoli Paesi o al mondo nella sua interezza.

Il fulcro del libro di Deaton è che negli ultimi decenni diversi miliardi di persone nel mondo in via di sviluppo, soprattutto in Asia, sono sfuggite a tragici livelli di povertà. La stessa macchina che ha incrementato la disuguaglianza nei Paesi ricchi ha creato un po’ di equità a livello globale per miliardi di persone. Guardando lontano, e dando ad esempio a un indiano lo stesso peso di un americano o di un francese, gli ultimi 30 anni sono stati tra i migliori della storia dell’uomo per aver migliorare il destino dei poveri.

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