¿Cuál es el problema de las economías avanzadas?

CAMBRIDGE – ¿Es el lento crecimiento actual de las economías avanzadas una continuación del deterioro prolongado o refleja las consecuencias normales de una profunda crisis financiera sistémica? Y, lo que es más importante, ¿necesitamos responder esa pregunta definitivamente para impulsar el ritmo de la recuperación económica?

En una reciente conferencia del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI), el ex Secretario del Tesoro de los Estados Unidos, Lawrence Summers, sostuvo que el triste crecimiento actual tiene raíces profundas que son anteriores a la crisis financiera mundial. Summers insistió en particular en la necesidad de más inversión en infraestructuras, opinión que la mayoría de los economistas comparten encarecidamente, sobre todo si se trata de una inversión verdaderamente productiva.

Desde luego, otros están preocupados por el deterioro prolongado, si bien la mayoría han insistido en el lado de la oferta en lugar de en el de la demanda. El economista Jeffrey Sachs, por ejemplo, ha sostenido que la economía de los EE.UU. debe afrontar una plétora de impedimentos estructurales al crecimiento sostenido, incluida la deslocalización, los desajustes en el mercado laboral y las infraestructuras deterioradas.

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