50年代的古巴导弹危机

坎布里奇——本月是古巴导弹危机50周年纪念日——1962年10月的这13天或许是有史以来世界最接近一场全面核战争的时刻。约翰·F·肯尼迪总统已经公开警告苏联不要向古巴部署攻击性导弹。可苏联领导人尼基塔·赫鲁晓夫决定偷偷越过肯尼迪划出的红线,看看美国人面对既成事实会怎么办。美国侦察机发现导弹之后,危机全面爆发。

肯尼迪某些顾问敦促发动空袭和入侵来销毁导弹。肯尼迪调集了部队,但同时宣布对古巴实施海上封锁来争取时间。携带后续导弹的苏联船只掉头返回后危机逐渐消退,赫鲁晓夫也答应移走岛上已有的导弹。正如时任美国国务卿迪安·腊斯克所言:“双方的相互对峙最终以对方的退缩而告结束。”

乍看之下,这是一个可以合理预见的结果。美国拥有的核武器优势为17比1。简直可以用势单力薄来形容苏联人。

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