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kapparov1_RUSLAN PRYANIKOVAFPGetty Images_kazakhstan protest Ruslan Pryanikov/AFP/Getty Images

哈萨克斯坦所需要的改革

阿拉木图—3月,掌权近30年的哈萨克斯坦前总统纳扎尔巴耶夫辞职。纳扎尔巴耶夫是新加坡领导人李光耀的仰慕者。对他来说,李光耀的领导证明了先发展经济再实现政治自由化的重要性。但这一方针的缺陷日益暴露。

纳扎尔巴耶夫,“没有可持续的经济,就不会产生中产阶级,如果没有充分强大和明智的领导层,能够让国家摆脱经济衰退,中产阶级就无法存在。”但他的政府并没有建设可持续的经济。相反,他的政府依靠石油收入——2014年贡献了哈萨克斯坦总预算的27%以上——保持低税率,收买公民顺从极权主义

2014年,全球石油价格从每桶100美元暴跌到50美元,哈萨克斯坦遭受重创。本币腾格兑美元汇率跌去一半,真实收入下降到石油繁荣前的水平,失业率特别是年轻人失业率一飞冲天。

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