IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano Qian Yi/ZumaPress

Un banco radiactivo necesario

CANBERRA – Una de las tantas cosas que todos hemos aprendido luego del episodio nuclear de Irán es que los líderes mundiales cometieron un error cuando negociaron el Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear (TPN) en los años sesenta, por no haber hecho nada para limitar el enriquecimiento de uranio y el reprocesamiento de plutonio. Este error al parecer se derivó de la creencia –que desde hace mucho se sabe es incorrecta, al menos en el caso del uranio– de que solo los Estados con la real probabilidad de tener tal capacidad técnica ya tenían armas nucleares o (como Alemania) se habían comprometido a nunca adquirirlas.

Como resultado, cualquier  Estado miembro puede argumentar con base en su “derecho inalienable” de conformidad con el TPN de desarrollar cualquier etapa del ciclo del combustible nuclear. Aunque el citado derecho se refiere solo a las actividades “con fines pacíficos”, hay un gran vacío normativo. Cualquier Estado con la capacidad técnica –y ahora hay varias docenas– puede construir instalaciones de enriquecimiento de uranio con el objetivo oficial de producir combustible para generar energía nuclear o ser usado en reactores de investigación, pero que sin embargo tienen la capacidad inherente de producir combustible de un grado mucho mayor, necesario para producir armas nucleares.

No por nada dichas instalaciones han sido descritas como un “set inicial de creación de bombas” y que el avance de Irán en esa dirección –con instalaciones deliberadamente o no diseñadas con el potencial de capacidad nuclear inicial– ha atemorizado a muchos otros de la comunidad internacional. Es por ello que había tanta presión para tener el acuerdo ahora sobre la mesa, que limita espectacularmente las capacidades de enriquecimiento de Irán.

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