Jim Meehan

Logische Schlüsse und das Ende der Armut

WASHINGTON, DC – Die Weltbank hat sich zwei neue Ziele gesetzt: die extreme und chronische Armut auf der Welt bis 2030 zu beenden und den gemeinsamen Wohlstand zu fördern, der hinsichtlich des Fortschritts der ärmsten 40 Prozent der Bevölkerung in jeder Gesellschaft definiert ist. Nun, da die  offene Arbeitsgruppe über die Ziele für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung der UN-Generalversammlung die Ziele der Weltbank bei der Armutsbekämpfung unterstützt, tritt in der Diskussion, wie diese Ziele zu erreichen sind, eine alte Frage erneut zutage: Werden die Vorteile des Wirtschaftswachstums von alleine nach unten durchsickern und alle erreichen oder wird es zielgerichteter Umverteilungsmaßnahmen bedürfen?

Viele Menschen verharren lediglich aufgrund eines Fehlers in der logischen Schlussfolgerung im Lager der reinen Wachstumsbefürworter und im Gegensatz zu engagierten Ideologen kann man sie von ihrer Haltung abbringen. Aus diesem Grund ist das zweite Ziel der Weltbank, den gemeinsamen Wohlstand zu fördern, nicht nur für sich selbst genommen so wichtig, sondern auch als wesentliche Ergänzung des Ziels, der Armut ein Ende zu setzen.

In Anerkennung der Tatsache, dass es auch über die nächsten zwei Jahrzehnte eine gewisse „friktionelle“ Armut geben wird, besteht das formelle Ziel der Weltbank darin, den Prozentsatz der Menschen, die unter der Armutsgrenze leben – also von weniger als 1,25 Dollar täglich (gemessen an der Kaufkraftparität) – auf weniger als 3 Prozent zu senken.

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