Jim Meehan

推理和贫困的终结

华盛顿—世界银行给自己制定了两个新目标:2030年终结全世界的极端和长期贫困,并促进共同繁荣——衡量标准是各个社会最贫困40%人群的改善。联合国大会可持续发展目标开放工作组(Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals)支持世行的减贫目标,而关于如何实现的争论让我们重新面对了一个老问题:经济增长的好处会自动向下流动、触及所有人,还是需要定向的分配政策?

许多人站在唯增长论阵营,之所以如此,唯一原因是演绎推理的错误;与坚定的空想家不同,他们可以转变立场。正因如此,世界银行的第二个目标——促进共同繁荣的重要性不但在于其本身,也在于其是终结贫困目标的不可缺少的部分。

世界银行认识到一些“摩擦性”贫困在未来二十年是不可避免的,因此其正式目标让生活在贫困线以下的人的比重低于3%。贫困线的标准是每人每天消费少于1.25美元(以购买力平价衡量)。

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