数字民主的假承诺

慕尼黑—大部分人都把互联网看成是好力量。互联网不但可以让我们购物、和老同学取得联系、找到新开的寿司店,还能让被剥夺公民权的人发出声音从而让我们得到更多的政治力量、帮助活动家动员支持者、让普通民众能够公布官员腐败或警察暴力行为的证据。

但质疑声也接踵而至——并非在政府机构利用互联网监控彼此、我们和我们的领导人被曝光后才是如此。互联网对政治的影响是非常模糊的。除非在我们可以在像现实生活中那样在互联网上行使规则和权利,否则就无法改变这一点。

早期拥趸梦想着靠接入互联网就能帮助传播民主。这并没有发生。20世纪90年代末,只有4%的世界人口在使用与联网。如今这一比例是40%。但被民主观察机构自由之家(Freedom House)归类为“不自由”或“部分自由”的国家比例在同一时期并未发生多大变化。在网络和层级之间的战争中,更常获胜的是层级。

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