Cambios en Europa que desde arriba no se ven

MÚNICH – Según una frase muy famosa del estadista francés Georges Clemenceau, “los generales siempre están librando la guerra anterior”. Hoy que la crisis del euro ya pasó, esta frase es aplicable a la Unión Europea y sus actuales intentos de darse un marco institucional más estable.

La Unión Europea atraviesa una etapa de transformaciones radicales, pero muchas de ellas están pasando casi inadvertidas, porque la atención está puesta casi exclusivamente en la implementación de reformas de amplio alcance desde los niveles superiores. Parece que los funcionarios sólo son capaces de ver aquellos cambios que tengan que ver con eurobonos, nuevos tratados europeos o giros de la canciller alemana Angela Merkel en materia de políticas. Pero hay otros cambios más pequeños, guiados por los mecanismos del mercado, a los que también hay que prestar atención.

La obsesión de Europa por la implementación de reformas desde arriba se debe a la predominancia de determinados tipos de análisis para las causas de la crisis del euro. En Alemania, Holanda o Finlandia, la mayoría considera que la desestabilización de la eurozona (y la consiguiente desestabilización de la Unión Europea) se debió al exceso de gasto público y las deficiencias de regulación en países como Grecia, España y Chipre.

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