Cambios en Europa que desde arriba no se ven

MÚNICH – Según una frase muy famosa del estadista francés Georges Clemenceau, “los generales siempre están librando la guerra anterior”. Hoy que la crisis del euro ya pasó, esta frase es aplicable a la Unión Europea y sus actuales intentos de darse un marco institucional más estable.

La Unión Europea atraviesa una etapa de transformaciones radicales, pero muchas de ellas están pasando casi inadvertidas, porque la atención está puesta casi exclusivamente en la implementación de reformas de amplio alcance desde los niveles superiores. Parece que los funcionarios sólo son capaces de ver aquellos cambios que tengan que ver con eurobonos, nuevos tratados europeos o giros de la canciller alemana Angela Merkel en materia de políticas. Pero hay otros cambios más pequeños, guiados por los mecanismos del mercado, a los que también hay que prestar atención.

La obsesión de Europa por la implementación de reformas desde arriba se debe a la predominancia de determinados tipos de análisis para las causas de la crisis del euro. En Alemania, Holanda o Finlandia, la mayoría considera que la desestabilización de la eurozona (y la consiguiente desestabilización de la Unión Europea) se debió al exceso de gasto público y las deficiencias de regulación en países como Grecia, España y Chipre.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/klkeuq2/es;
  1. China corruption Isaac Lawrence/Getty Images

    The Next Battle in China’s War on Corruption

    • Chinese President Xi Jinping knows well the threat that corruption poses to the authority of the Communist Party of China and the state it controls. 
    • But moving beyond Xi's anti-corruption purge to build robust and lasting anti-graft institutions will not be easy, owing to enduring opportunities for bureaucratic capture.
  2. Italy unemployed demonstration SalvatoreEsposito/Barcroftimages / Barcroft Media via Getty Images

    Putting Europe’s Long-Term Unemployed Back to Work

    Across the European Union, millions of people who are willing and able to work have been unemployed for a year or longer, at great cost to social cohesion and political stability. If the EU is serious about stopping the rise of populism, it will need to do more to ensure that labor markets are working for everyone.

  3. Latin America market Federico Parra/Getty Images

    A Belt and Road for the Americas?

    In a time of global uncertainty, a vision of “made in the Americas” prosperity provides a unifying agenda for the continent. If implemented, the US could reassert its historical leadership among a group of countries that share its fundamental values, as well as an interest in inclusive economic growth and rising living standards.

  4. Startup office Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    How Best to Promote Research and Development

    Clearly, there is something appealing about a start-up-based innovation strategy: it feels democratic, accessible, and so California. But it is definitely not the only way to boost research and development, or even the main way, and it is certainly not the way most major innovations in the US came about during the twentieth century.

  5. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.