L’UE regarde par le petit bout de la lorgnette

MÜNICH – L’homme d’État français Georges Clemenceau a eu ce mot célèbre : « La guerre ! C’est une chose trop grave pour la confier à des militaires ». Aujourd’hui, dans le sillage de la crise de l’euro, on pourrait en dire autant de l’Union européenne, à un moment où elle cherche à se donner un ancrage institutionnel plus solide.

L’UE traverse une période de changements fondamentaux, mais qui passent en grande partie inaperçus en raison de la prédominance accordée aux réformes de grande ampleur, du haut vers le bas. Les fonctionnaires semblent incapables de reconnaître le changement s’il ne prend par la forme d’euro-obligations, de nouveaux traités européens ou d’une nouvelle orientation politique de la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel. Mais de petites étapes guidées par les mécanismes du marché sont tout aussi souhaitables.

L’obsession européenne avec les réformes du haut vers le bas trouve son origine dans les analyses prévalantes des causes de la crise de l’euro. La majorité des citoyens allemands, néerlandais et finlandais estiment que des dépenses publiques excessives et une réglementation inadéquate dans des pays comme la Grèce, l’Espagne et Chypre sont responsables de la déstabilisation de la zone euro, et par conséquent de l’Union européenne.

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