Die schwierige Frage der Fruchtbarkeit

BOSTON – Dass Verhütung und Bevölkerungswachstum umstrittene Themen sind, ist angesichts der vielen Perspektiven, aus denen man sie betrachten kann, vielleicht unvermeidlich. Aktivisten im Bereich der reproduktiven Gesundheit konzentrieren sich auf Familienplanung und das Recht von Frauen, selbst über ihren Körper zu bestimmen. Ökonomen betrachten die Auswirkungen auf das nachhaltige Wachstum. Regierungen sorgen sich um Überbevölkerung und Arbeitslosigkeit, Beschäftigte im Gesundheitswesen um Geschlechtskrankheiten und Mangelernährung. Zwischen diesen unterschiedlichen Aspekten das richtige Gleichgewicht zu finden ist nicht einfach – aber es hängt eine Menge davon ab.

Neue Verhütungstechnologien – Kondome, verschiedene Varianten der Pille und implantierbare Geräte – bieten reversible und dauerhafte Formen des Schutzes. Doch bei ihrer Verwendung gibt es enorme Unterschiede – nur 4,8% der jungen Frauen im Tschad verhüten, aber 84,6% in China –, was durch Unterschiede bei den Kosten, der Verfügbarkeit und den kulturellen Normen begründet ist.

Verhütung bringt unbestreitbare gesundheitliche und sozioökonomische Vorteile. Laut einer Studie aus dem Jahre 2012 vermied sie im Jahr 2008 geschätzte 272.040 Todesfälle von Müttern – d.h., es ereigneten sich 44% weniger Todesfälle, als sonst der Fall gewesen wäre. Der Einsatz von Verhütungsmitteln hilft zudem weniger entwickelten Ländern, indem er das Beschäftigungs- und Verdienstpotenzial der Frauen erhöht.

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