生育难题

波士顿——鉴于认识的角度多种多样,避孕和人口增长不可避免地会成为争议话题。生殖健康活动人士关注计划生育和妇女控制身体的权利。经济学家关注对可持续发展的影响。政府则担心人口泛滥和失业问题。医务人员担心营养不良和性传播疾病。在不同的诉求之间实现恰到好处的平衡绝非易事——但上述目标能否实现却在很多领域具有决定性意义。

避孕套、避孕药和植入器械等全新避孕技术提供了可逆及永久形式的生殖保护。但具体使用状况差异很大——从乍得年轻女性的4.8%到中国青年女性的84.6%——反映出不同国家在成本、使用便捷度和文化规范方面的差异。

避孕无疑会带来健康和社会经济效益。2012年的一份研究报告显示避孕措施仅在2008年估计就避免了272,040例产妇死亡,比不采取避孕措施的情况要低44%。避孕措施的使用还通过提高女性就业及收入能力帮助了欠发达经济体。

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