Spravedlnost je usmíření

V Jihoafrické republice a potažmo i na celém světě jsme vychováváni k přesvědčení, že spravedlnost rovná se odplata. Vzhledem k šokujícímu vzestupu násilných trestných činů a rostoucímu počtu ohavných případů znásilňování a zneužívání dětí se dnes často objevují výzvy – podporované širokou veřejností –, aby byl obnoven trest smrti. Jihoafrický Ústavní soud naštěstí shledal, že trest smrti – který Jihoafričané zrušili ve stejné době, kdy jsme se osvobodili od apartheidu – je protiústavní.

Bohužel se zdá, že na mnoha místech světa se muži a ženy v touze po odplatě nepovznesli nad biblickou zásadu „oko za oko, zub za zub“. V některých muslimských zemích jsou dokonce usvědčeným zlodějům veřejně usekávány ruce. Onen biblický výrok však původně vznikl ve snaze potlačit krvavé sváry pramenící z touhy potrestat nevinné příbuzné osoby, jež spáchala vraždu. Princip „oko za oko“ žádá, aby jediným terčem odplaty byl původce zločinu, a nikoliv ostatní, kteří se provinili pouze příbuzenským vztahem k němu.

Rčení „oko za oko“ tedy nemělo znamenat to, co dnes znamená, tedy že za zabití se má platit jiným zabitím. Vzhledem k brutalitě apartheidu by tento princip v mé vlasti nikdy nefungoval.

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