Jon Krause

Justicia para los muertos de Srebrenica

LA HAYA – En 1993, las atrocidades cometidas contra musulmanes eslavos cerca de la ciudad minera bosnia de Srebrenica catalizaron peticiones de creación de un tribunal para juzgar a dirigentes políticos y militares acusados de crímenes de guerra en la antigua Yugoslavia.

El nuevo tribunal de las Naciones Unidas que se constituyó –casi cinco decenios después de se dictaran las sentencias definitivas en Nuremberg y Tokio– fue el predecesor de tribunales especiales para procesar a los autores materiales del genocidio de Ruanda, a Charles Taylor y sus carniceros, que tanto derramamiento de sangre causaron en Sierra Leona por su codicia de diamantes, y a los asesinos jemeres rojos de Camboya. El Tribunal Penal Internacional para la Antigua Yugoslavia (TPIAY) también dio pie para la creación del Tribunal Penal Internacional permanente para juzgar a criminales de todo el mundo.

Sin dejarse disuadir por el alcance aún no comprobado del TPIAY, soldados servios acabaron invadiendo la propia Srebrenica –pese a su estatuto de “zona segura” bajo la protección de las Naciones Unidas– hace quince años, el 11 de julio de 1995, expulsaron a sus habitantes y ejecutaron a 7.600 cautivos. Sin embargo, a partir de aquella matanza el Tribunal y los tribunales sobre crímenes de guerra de Bosnia y Servia, con respaldo extranjero, han hecho realidad el logro más importante de las actuaciones judiciales internacionales hasta la fecha.

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