Jon Krause

Justice pour les morts de Srebrenica

LA HAYE – Les atrocités commises en 1993 à l’encontre des musulmans slaves près de la ville minière bosniaque de Srebrenica ont catalysé les appels à l’établissement d’un tribunal pour que soient jugés les responsables politiques et militaires accusés de crimes de guerre en ex-Yougoslavie.

Le nouveau tribunal des Nations Unies qui fut formé – près de cinquante ans après les derniers jugements rendus à Nuremberg et à Tokyo – fut le précurseur de tribunaux ad hoc en vue de poursuivre les auteurs du génocide au Rwanda, Charles Taylor et ses bouchers trafiquants de  diamants de sang en Sierra Leone et les assassins Khmer Rouge au Cambodge. Le Tribunal pénal international pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) a aussi donné naissance à la Cour pénale internationale permanente pour juger les criminels du monde entier.

Ne craignant pas un TPIY dont les travaux n’avaient pas encore été testés, les soldats Serbes ont finalement envahi la ville même de Srebrenica – malgré sont statut de « zone sécurisée » sous la protection des Nations Unies – il y a quinze ans, le 11 juillet 1995 ; ils en ont expulsé ses habitants et exécuté 7 600 prisonniers. De ce massacre, cependant, sont nés le tribunal et les cours soutenues par l’étranger pour juger les crimes de guerre en Bosnie et en Serbie qui ont permis l’effort de justice international le plus significatif à ce jour.

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