John Overmyer

Justicia para algunos

NUEVA YORK – El desastre de las hipotecas en los Estados Unidos ha planteado cuestiones profundas sobre el “Estado de derecho”, la característica universalmente aceptada de una sociedad avanzada y civilizada. El Estado de derecho debe proteger a los débiles contra los fuertes y velar por que todos reciban un trato equitativo. En los Estados Unidos, a raíz de la crisis de las hipotecas de gran riesgo, no ha hecho ninguna de las dos cosas.

Una parte del Estado de derecho es la seguridad de los derechos de propiedad: si debes dinero por tu casa, por ejemplo, el banco no puede quitártela, sencillamente, sin seguir el procedimiento legal prescrito, pero en las últimas semanas y meses, los americanos han visto varios casos en los que ha habido personas a quienes se les ha desposeído de sus casas pese a que no tenían deudas.

Para algunos bancos, se trata simplemente de daños colaterales: millones de americanos –además de los cuatro millones, aproximadamente, de 2008 y 2009– van a ser desahuciados de sus casas. De hecho, el ritmo de ventas judiciales hipotecarias habría de aumentar... de no ser por la intervención gubernamental. Sin embargo, los atajos de procedimiento, la documentación incompleta y el fraude desenfrenado que acompañó las prisas de los bancos para crear millones de créditos de dudoso cobro durante la burbuja inmobiliaria han complicado el proceso de limpieza del embrollo posterior.

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