John Overmyer

العدالة من أجل بعض الناس

نيويورك ـ إن كارثة الرهن العقاري التي ألمت بالولايات المتحدة كانت سبباً في إثارة تساؤلات عميقة حول "حكم القانون"، السمة المميزة المتفق عليها عالمياً للمجتمع المتقدم المتحضر. ومن المفترض أن يحمي القانون الضعيف من القوي، وأن يضمن المعاملة العادلة للجميع. ولكن في الولايات المتحدة، وفي أعقاب أزمة الرهن العقاري الثانوي، لم يؤد القانون أياً من هاتين الوظيفتين.

إن جزءاً من حكم القانون يتلخص في ضمان حقوق الملكية ـ فإذا كنت مديناً بأموال على منزلك على سبيل المثال فإن البنك لا يستطيع ببساطة أن يأخذ منك المنزل من دون اتباع العملية القانونية المنصوص عليها. ولكن في الأسابيع والأشهر الأخيرة، شهد الأميركيون عدة حالات حيث تم تجريد أفراد من ملكية منازلهم حتى على الرغم من أنهم غير مدينين.

وفي نظر بعض البنوك فإن هذا ليس أكثر من مجرد أضرار جانبية: فهناك الملايين من الأميركيين ـ بالإضافة إلى ما يقدر بنحو أربعة ملايين في عامي 2008 و2009 ـ ما زالوا معرضين للطرد من منازلهم. والواقع أن وتيرة حبس الرهن العقاري كان من المنتظر أن تزيد ـ لولا التدخل من جانب الحكومة. بيد أن اختزال الإجراءات، والوثائق المنقوصة، والاحتيال المتفشي الذي رافق اندفاع البنوك إلى توليد الملايين من القروض المعدومة أثناء فقاعة الإسكان، كل ذلك كان من الأسباب التي أدت إلى تعقيد عملية تطهير الفوضى التي تلت ذلك.

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