Juncker EU John Thys/Stringer

¿Cuánta Europa puede tolerar Europa?

CAMBRIDGE – Este mes la Unión Europea celebrará el 60 aniversario de su tratado fundacional, el Tratado de Roma, que estableció la Comunidad Económica Europea. Ciertamente hay mucho que celebrar. Después de siglos de guerra, agitación y asesinatos en masa, Europa es pacífica y democrática. La UE colocó a 11 ex países del bloque soviético bajo su cobijo y los guió exitosamente en sus transiciones poscomunistas. Y, en una era de desigualdad, los países miembro de la UE exhiben las brechas de ingresos más bajas comparadas con cualquier otra parte del mundo.

Pero estos son logros pasados. Hoy, la Unión está empantanada en una profunda crisis existencial y su futuro está en duda. Los síntomas se sienten en todas partes: el Brexit, los niveles apabullantes de desempleo entre los jóvenes en Grecia y España, la deuda y el estancamiento en Italia, el ascenso de movimientos populistas y una reacción negativa contra los inmigrantes y el euro. Todos ellos apuntan a la necesidad de una reparación importante de las instituciones de Europa.

De modo que ya era hora de que el presidente de la Comisión Europea, Jean-Claude Juncker, publicara un nuevo informe sobre el futuro de Europa. Juncker plantea cinco caminos posibles: seguir adelante con la agenda actual, centrarse solamente en el mercado único, permitir que algunos países avancen más rápido que otros hacia la integración, achicar la agenda y presionar de manera ambiciosa a favor de una integración uniforme y más completa.

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