Juncker EU John Thys/Stringer

Combien d’Europe l’Europe peut-elle tolérer?

CAMBRIDGE – L'Union européenne célébrera ce mois-ci le 60e anniversaire de son traité fondateur, le Traité de Rome, qui a institué la Communauté économique européenne. Il y a sans aucun doute beaucoup à célébrer. Après des siècles de guerre, de bouleversements et de massacres, l'Europe est en paix et démocratique. L'UE a accueilli 11 anciens pays du bloc soviétique dans son giron, guidant avec succès leurs transitions post-communistes. Et, à une époque de fortes inégalités, les pays membres de l'UE présentent les plus faibles écarts de revenus du monde entier.

Mais tout cela correspond à des réussites passées. Aujourd'hui, l'Union est embourbée dans une crise existentielle profonde, et son avenir est fortement remis en question. Les symptômes sont visibles partout: le Brexit, les niveaux écrasants du chômage des jeunes en Grèce et en Espagne, la dette et la stagnation en Italie, la montée des mouvements populistes, ainsi que les réactions brutales contre les immigrés et l'euro. Tous soulignent la nécessité d'une refonte majeure des institutions européennes.

C’est pourquoi il était grand temps que le Président de la Commission européenne Jean-Claude Juncker propose un nouveau livre blanc sur l'avenir de l'Europe. Juncker y expose cinq voies possibles: continuer le programme actuel, se concentrer uniquement sur le marché unique, permettre à certains pays de se déplacer plus rapidement que d'autres vers une plus grande intégration, revoir à la baisse le programme, et tout faire pour mettre en œuvre un plan ambitieux pour une intégration uniforme et plus complète.

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