欧佩克石油禁运40年

丹佛——四十年前,美国和欧洲绝大部分国家因为对化石燃料的危险依赖而得到了教训。继以色列赎罪日战争获得胜利后,石油输出国(欧佩克)组织阿拉伯成员国宣布对支持以色列的国家实行石油禁运。面对主要能源供应的突然中止及世界油价的大幅上涨,发达国家感到前所未有的力不从心。

但事实表明发达国家有能力降低对阿拉伯石油的依赖。他们只不过还没意识到——也可能是不愿承认——遭到欧佩克的石油绑架前有这个必要。

当消费者排长队等候——甚至为了加满油箱而发生斗殴时,政府却在鼓励创新方案,比方说提高汽车和冰箱等某些电器的能效要求。美国能源部于1977年创立;一年后颁布了《国家能源法》,采用行业法规及税收优惠政策等工具来推动可再生能源发展、提高燃油效率。

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