En attendant le jour du jugement pour la zone euro

MUNICH – L'Europe et le reste du monde attendent avec impatience le 12 septembre, jour de la décision de la Cour constitutionnelle allemande sur le Mécanisme européen de stabilité (MES). Ce mécanisme devrait être le successeur permanent du prêteur d'urgence de la zone euro, le Fonds européen de stabilité financière (FESF). La Cour doit se prononcer sur le fait de savoir si le traité qui établit le MES viole ou non la Grundgesetz, la loi fondamentale allemande. Si tel est le cas, elle demandera au président allemand de ne pas signer ce traité, déjà ratifié par le Parlement.

De tous cotés, on s'inquiète de la décision que prendra la Cour. Les contribuables et les retraités européens qui ont des économies substantielles craignent qu'une décision favorable au MES n'ouvre la voie à une mutualisation de la dette de la zone euro et que ce soit alors à eux de supporter les pertes des investisseurs. En cas de décision défavorable au MES, ce sont ces derniers qui craignent d'avoir à prendre en charge la totalité des pertes qu'ils ont subies.

Les plaignants qui ont soumis le texte à la Cour constitutionnelle viennent de l'ensemble de l'éventail politique. On compte parmi eux le Parti de gauche, le député CSU (Union chrétienne-sociale) Peter Gauweiler et la ministre de la Justice du précédent gouvernement social démocrate du chancelier Gerhard Schröder, Herta Däubler-Gmelin, qui a réuni des dizaines de milliers de signatures d'opposants au MES, ainsi qu'un groupe de professeurs de droit et d'économie retraités et un autre groupe constitué de citoyens "ordinaires" dont les plaintes individuelles ont été selectionnées à titre d'exemple par la Cour.

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