Defensa de la autodefensa de Japón

CAMBRIDGE – Desde el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Japón se rigió por una “constitución de paz”, de cuño estadounidense, cuyo artículo 9 prohíbe la guerra y limita la acción de las fuerzas japonesas a la autodefensa. Ahora, el primer ministro Shinzo Abe promueve la sanción de una ley que permita reinterpretar la constitución para que ese concepto incluya la “autodefensa colectiva”; así el país podría ampliar su cooperación en materia de seguridad con otros países, particularmente con su aliado más cercano, Estados Unidos.

Los críticos consideran que la reinterpretación supondría la ruptura con una tradición de siete décadas de pacifismo. Pero en realidad, los objetivos principales de Abe (mejorar la capacidad de Japón de responder a amenazas de menor nivel que un ataque armado; hacer posible una participación más eficaz en actividades internacionales de mantenimiento de la paz; y redefinir el tipo de medidas de autodefensa permitidas según el artículo 9) son relativamente modestos.

El temor a que Japón pueda verse implicado en guerras lejanas libradas por Estados Unidos también es exagerado. De hecho, la reinterpretación está cuidadosamente pensada para prohibir aventuras de esa índole, pero permitiendo una colaboración más estrecha con Estados Unidos en relación con amenazas directas a la seguridad japonesa.

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