Japon: la défense de la légitime défense

CAMBRIDGE – Depuis la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale, le Japon a été gouverné par une constitution de paix rédigée par les Américains et dont l’Article 9 interdit au Japon de faire la guerre et limite les forces défensives du pays. Le Premier Ministre Shinzo Abe cherche à faire passer une loi qui permettrait au Japon de réinterpréter la constitution pour y inclure la notion de « légitime défense collective, » par laquelle le pays pourrait accroître sa coopération sécuritaire avec d’autres pays, particulièrement son allié le plus proche, les Etats-Unis.  

Les esprits critiques voient là un écart radical par rapport à soixante-dix ans de pacifisme. Mais les objectifs premiers de Abe – améliorer la capacité du Japon à répondre aux menaces qui ne se résument pas à des attaques armées ; permettre au Japon de participer de manière efficace aux activités internationales de maintien de la paix ; et redéfinir les mesures de défense légitime autorisées par l’Article 9 – sont finalement relativement modestes.

Les craintes soulevées par une décision qui impliquerait un engagement japonais dans les guerres américaines lointaines sont également balayées. Car les règles ont été soigneusement conçues pour interdire ce genre d’éventualité tout en permettant au Japon de travailler plus étroitement avec les Etats-Unis sur les menaces directes à la sécurité japonaise.

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