David Yu/Flickr

照向城市的光

纽约—上个月,在哥伦比亚麦德林发生了一场令人瞩目的集会。大约22,000人聚集于此参加世界城市论坛(World Urban Forum),讨论城市的未来。论坛中心议题是创造“生活之城”,即促进城市环境下的公平发展。目前,世界大部分人民生活在城市中,到2050年,城市居民比例将超过三分之二。

会议地点本身便具有象征意义:麦德林曾经以贩毒黑帮闻名于世,现在大可跻身于最具创精神城市之列。麦德林的故事可以作为所有城市地区的重要经验。

在20世纪八九十年代,大名鼎鼎的帕博罗·埃斯科巴(Pablo Escobar)等卡特尔老板统治者麦德林的街头、掌握着麦德林的政治。埃斯科巴权力的源泉不仅来自国际可卡因贸易的巨大利润(受美国需求推动),也来源于麦德林和哥伦比亚的极端不平等。麦德林坐落于陡峭的安第斯山谷,在这里,位数庞大的贫民被政府所抛弃,从而为卡特尔提供了大量人力资源。在缺乏公共服务的情况下,埃斯科巴用他的慷慨赢得了麦德林贫民的心——即便他对麦德林实施着恐怖统治。

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