Chris Van Es

جنوب أفريقيا تنطلق

نيويورك ــ لقد عادت اتفاقيات الاستثمار الدولية لتحتل عناوين الأخبار من جديد. فالولايات المتحدة تحاول فرض ميثاق استثماري قوي داخل اتفاقيتي "الشراكة" الكبيرتين المزعومتين، إحداهما تشكل جسراً بين ضفتي الأطلسي والأخرى تمتد عبر المحيط الهادئ، اللتين يجري التفاوض عليهما الآن. ولكن هناك معارضة متزايدة لمثل هذه التحركات.

فقد قررت جنوب أفريقيا وقف التجديد التلقائي لاتفاقيات الاستثمار التي وقعت عليها في أوائل فترة ما بعد الفصل العنصري. وأعلنت أنها تعتزم إنهاء بعضها. وقد أنهت الإكوادور وفنزويلا اتفاقياتهما بالفعل. وتقول الهند إنها سوف توقع على اتفاق استثمار مع الولايات المتحدة شريطة تغيير آلية تسوية المنازعات. ومن جانبها، لم تبرم البرازيل أي اتفاق من هذا القبيل قط.

والسبب وراء هذه المقاومة وجيه. فحتى في الولايات المتحدة، اعترضت النقابات العمالية والمنظمات البيئية والصحية والتنموية غير الحكومية على الاتفاقيات التي تقترحها الولايات المتحدة.

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