Matthew Petroff/Wikimedia Commons

Создание образованного общества

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – Граждане самых богатых стран мира думают, что их экономики основаны на инновациях. Но инновация являлась частью развитого слова экономики на протяжении более чем двух столетий. На самом деле, в течение тысячелетий, до Промышленной Революции, доходы были в стагнации. Потом доход на душу населения вырос, увеличиваясь из года в год, прерываясь лишь случайными воздействиями циклических колебаний.

Нобелевский лауреат экономист Роберт Солоу отметил около 60 лет назад, что растущие доходы в значительной степени следует отнести не к накоплению капитала, а техническому прогрессу - к обучению, как делать вещи лучше. В то время как некоторые повышения производительности отражают влияние драматических открытий, многие из них были сделаны ради небольших постепенных изменений. И если это так, то имеет смысл обратить внимание на то, как общество учит и то, что можно сделать, чтобы способствовать обучению - в том числе обучению как учить.

Сто лет назад, экономист и политолог Джозеф Шумпетер утверждал, что центральной добродетелью рыночной экономики является ее способность к инновациям. Он утверждал, что традиционная ориентация экономистов на конкурентных рынках была неуместна; что имело значение, так это конкуренция за рынок, а не конкуренция на рынке. Борьба за рынок начала инновацию. Последовательность монополистов приведет, с этой точки зрения, к более высоким стандартам уровня жизни в долгосрочной перспективе.

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