A democracia no século XXI

NOVA IORQUE – A recepção nos Estados Unidos e noutras economias avançadas, do recente livro de Thomas Piketty Capital no Século XXI confirma a crescente preocupação com o aumento das desigualdades. O seu livro dá mais peso ao já esmagador conjunto de provas respeitante à parte do rendimento e da riqueza em alta do topo.

O livro de Piketty, além disso, oferece uma perspectiva diferente sobre os 30 ou mais anos que se seguiram à Grande Depressão e à Segunda Guerra Mundial, vendo este período como uma anomalia histórica, provocada talvez pela coesão social incomum que eventos cataclísmicos podem estimular. Nessa era de rápido crescimento económico, a prosperidade era amplamente partilhada, com todos os grupos a avançarem, mas com aqueles que estavam no fundo a verem maiores ganhos percentuais.

Piketty também lança uma nova luz sobre as “reformas”vendidas por Ronald Reagan e Margaret Thatcher na década de 1980 como potenciadores de crescimento a partir das quais todos iriam beneficiar. As suas reformas foram seguidas por um crescimento mais lento e uma elevada instabilidade global e o crescimento que ocorreu beneficiou principalmente os que estavam no topo.

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