La democrazia nel XXI secolo

NEW YORK – Negli Stati Uniti e in altre economie avanzate l’accoglienza del recente libro di Thomas Piketty Capital in the Twenty-First Centuryattesta le crescenti preoccupazioni per l’inasprirsi della disuguaglianza. Il suo libro conferma ulteriormente le prove già schiaccianti sull’impennata di reddito e ricchezza dell’élite.

Il libro di Piketty, tuttavia, dà una prospettiva diversa sui 30 anni o più che sono seguiti alla Grande Depressione e alla Seconda guerra mondiale, considerando questo periodo come un’anomalia storica, forse causata dall’inusuale coesione sociale che possono causare eventi cataclismici. In quell’epoca di rapida crescita economica, la prosperità era ampiamente condivisa, tutti i gruppi avanzano, ma quelli in fondo alla scala sociale vedevano maggiori percentuali di miglioramento.

Piketty ha anche proposto una rilettura delle “riforme” vendute negli anni 80 da Ronald Reagan e Margaret Thatcher come fattori di crescita da cui tutti avrebbero tratto beneficio. Le loro riforme sono state seguite da un rallentamento della crescita e da un incremento dell’instabilità globale, e laddove c’è stata crescita a beneficiarne sono stati perlopiù i superricchi.

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