Die Reform des Markt-Staat-Verhältnisses in China

PEKING – Seit Beginn der Geschichtsschreibung ist kein Land so rasch gewachsen – und hat so viele Menschen aus der Armut befreit – wie China in den letzten dreißig Jahren. Ein Markenzeichen des chinesischen Erfolgs war die Bereitschaft der jeweiligen politischen Führungen, das Wirtschaftsmodell trotz der Gegnerschaft mächtiger Partikularinteressen zur richtigen Zeit und bei Bedarf zu korrigieren. Nun, da China eine weitere Reihe grundlegender Reformen umsetzt, stellt sich die Frage, ob sich der Widerstand dieser Interessen bereits wieder formiert. Kann den Reformern erneut ein Triumph gelingen?

Bei der Beantwortung dieser Frage gilt es den entscheidenden Aspekt zu bedenken, dass mit der derzeitigen Reformrunde, ebenso wie mit vorangegangenen, nicht nur die Wirtschaft umstrukturiert wird, sondern auch jene Partikularinteressen, die künftige Reformen gestalten werden (und sogar bestimmen, ob Reformen überhaupt möglich sind). Und obwohl heute maßgebende Initiativen – wie beispielsweise die immer umfangreichere Anti-Korruptionskampagne – im Mittelpunkt der Aufmerksamkeit stehen, besteht das Grundproblem in China in der entsprechenden Gestaltung der Rollen von Staat und Markt.

Als China vor über drei Jahrzehnten mit seinen Reformen begann, war die Richtung klar: der Markt musste in der Ressourcenzuteilung eine viel größere Rolle spielen. Und so kam es auch, wobei der private Sektor heute viel wichtiger ist als er es damals war. Überdies besteht weitgehend Einigkeit, dass der Markt eine von offiziellen Vertretern so bezeichnete „entscheidende Rolle“ in zahlreichen Sektoren spielen muss, wo Staatsbetriebe (SOEs) vorherrschend sind. Doch welche Rolle sollte der Markt in anderen Sektoren und in der Wirtschaft im Allgemeinen spielen?

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