改革中国的国家-市场平衡

北京—在有记录的历史中,没有一个国家可以向过去三十年中的中国那样增长得如此之快、将如此之多的人口带出贫困。中国的成功的一大标志是其领导人愿意在需要时改变经济模式,即使面对强大的既得利益。如今,当中国再次实施根本性改革时,既得利益又要竭力阻止了。改革派能够再次取胜吗?

要回答这一问题,一个需要铭记的关键点是,和过去一样,当前的改革重构的将不止是经济,还包括将决定未来改革面貌(甚至决定是否会发生未来改革)的既得利益。如今,尽管高姿态的措施——比如扩大反腐运动——吸引了大量注意力,但中国面临的更深层次的问题是国家和市场的合适角色问题。

三十年前中国开始改革开放时,方向是明确的:市场应该在资源配置中起到远比现状更大的作用。结果也是如此,如今私人部门比昔日重要不知凡几。此外,一个广泛的共识是市场应该在许多国有企业主导的部门扮演官方所谓的“基础性作用”。但在其他部门以及作为整体的经济中,市场应该扮演什么作用?

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