La moratoria a la Griesa de la Argentina

NUEVA YORK – El 30 de julio pasado los acreedores de la Argentina no recibieron su pago semestral sobre los bonos que fueron reestructurados después de la última moratoria de este país en el año 2001. Argentina había depositado $539 millones en el Bank of New York Mellon unos días antes para dicho efecto. No obstante, este banco no pudo transferir los fondos a los acreedores: el juez federal de EE.UU. Thomas Griesa había ordenado que la Argentina no podía pagar a los acreedores que aceptaron su reestructuración hasta que primero pague completamente – incluyendo el pago de intereses vencidos – a aquellos acreedores que se negaron a participar en dicha restructuración.

Por primera vez en la historia ocurrió que a un país que está dispuesto y tiene la capacidad para pagar a sus acreedores, un juez le impide hacerlo. Los medios de comunicación denominan a la situación como una moratoria por parte de la Argentina, pero el hashtag #Griesafault en Twitter describió dicha situación de manera mucho más precisa. Argentina ha cumplido con las obligaciones que tiene con sus ciudadanos, y también con las que tiene con sus acreedores quienes aceptaron la reestructuración que este país realizó. El fallo de Griesa, sin embargo, alienta al comportamiento usurero, se torna en una amenaza para el funcionamiento de los mercados financieros internacionales y desafía un principio básico del capitalismo moderno: los deudores insolventes necesitan un nuevo comienzo.

Las moratorias soberanas son eventos comunes que tienen muchas causas. Para Argentina, la ruta a su moratoria del año 2001 comenzó cuando su deuda soberana se incrementó rápidamente, cuál si fuese un globo que se infla, en la década de los años 1990; dicho aumento se produjo de manera concurrente a las reformas económicas neoliberales del “Consenso de Washington”, mismas que según los creencias de los acreedores iban a enriquecer al país. El experimento falló, y el país sufrió una profunda crisis económica y social, con una recesión que duró desde el año 1998 hasta el 2002. Al final de dicho período, se alcanzó un porcentaje récord: el 57,5% de los argentinos se encontraban viviendo en niveles de pobreza, y la tasa de desempleo se disparó hasta alcanzar un 20,8%. 

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