阿根廷的葛里萨违约

纽约—7月30日,阿根廷债权人没有收到该国2001年违约后经历重组的债券的半年利息。几天前,阿根廷在纽约梅隆银行(Bank of New York Mellon)存入了5.39亿美元。但该银行无法把这笔钱转给债权人:美国联邦法官葛里萨(Thomas Griesa)判决,在连本带息足额偿付拒绝重组的债权人之前,阿根廷不能偿付接受重组的债权人。

这是历史上第一次由国家愿意也有能力支付债权人,却被法官阻挠。媒体称之为阿根廷违约,但Twitter标签更加正确——“葛里萨违约”(#Griesafault)。阿根廷履行了其对国民和接受重组的债权人的义务。但葛里萨的裁决却在鼓励高利贷行为,威胁了国际金融市场的运行,也践踏了现代资本主义的一条基本原则:资不抵债的债务人需要从新开始。

主权违约是一个常见现象,原因多种多样。就阿根廷而言,2001年的违约起因是20世纪90年代积累了太多的主权债务,而这又是拜“华盛顿共识”所赐。债权人相信,新自由主义的华盛顿共识经济改革能让阿根廷走向富裕。这场实验以失败告终,阿根廷也经历了深刻的经济和社会危机,衰退从1998年一直持续到2002年。最终,创纪录的57.5%的阿根廷人陷入贫困失业率也一飞冲天,达到了20.8%。

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