Dopo il dollaro

NEW YORK – È piuttosto emblematico che il recente vertice dei paesi BRICS tenutosi a Fortaleza, in Brasile, abbia avuto luogo esattamente settant'anni dopo la Conferenza di Bretton Woods, da cui nacquero il Fondo monetario internazionale e la Banca mondiale. Il risultato della riunione dei BRICS è stato l'annuncio della Nuova banca di sviluppo, che mobiliterà risorse da destinare a infrastrutture e progetti di sviluppo sostenibile, e dell'Accordo di riserva contingente, che fornirà liquidità attraverso currency swap, cioè scambi di valute.

La Conferenza di Bretton Woods è uno degli esempi di cooperazione economica internazionale più importanti della storia, e anche se nessuno è ancora in grado di stabilire se le iniziative emerse dall'incontro dei BRICS avranno successo, esse lanciano una complessa sfida alle istituzioni di Bretton Woods, che ora sono chiamate a rispondere. Rivedere il ruolo del dollaro statunitense nell'ambito del sistema monetario internazionale è un’ottima risposta possibile.  

Una caratteristica fondamentale del sistema Bretton Woods era che i paesi aderenti ancoravano la propria valuta al dollaro americano. Sebbene tale sistema sia stato effettivamente abolito nel 1971, il ruolo centrale del dollaro nel sistema monetario internazionale è rimasto inalterato, una realtà che molti paesi sono sempre meno disposti ad accettare.

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