Po dolaru

NEW YORK – Je symbolické, že nedávný summit BRICS v brazilské Fortaleze se uskutečnil přesně sedmdesát let po Konferenci v Bretton Woods, která dala vzniknout Mezinárodnímu měnovému fondu a Světové bance. Výsledkem zasedání BRICS bylo vyhlášení Nové rozvojové banky, která bude mobilizovat zdroje na infrastrukturu a projekty pro udržitelný rozvoj, a Podmíněného rezervního ujednání, jehož účelem je prostřednictvím měnových swapů zajišťovat likviditu.

Brettonwoodská konference byla jedním z nejúžasnějších historických příkladů mezinárodní ekonomické spolupráce. Přestože teď nikdo nedokáže říct, jestli snahy BRICS uspějí, představují významnou výzvu pro brettonwoodské instituce, které by měly reagovat. Ukázkovým případem je potřeba nově promyslet úlohu amerického dolaru v mezinárodní měnové soustavě.

Jedním klíčovým znakem brettonwoodského systému bylo, že země navážou své směnné kurzy na americký dolar. Systém byl sice roku 1971 fakticky odstraněn, ale ústřední role amerického dolaru v mezinárodní měnové soustavě zůstala nedotčená – a sílí neochota mnoha zemí tuto skutečnost akceptovat.

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