美元之后

纽约—最近在巴西福塔雷萨(Fortaleza)举行的金砖国家峰会具有象征意义,其召开正逢建立了国际货币进组织和世界银行的布雷顿森林会议七十周年。金砖国家峰会的一个重要成果是宣布成立新开发银行为基础设施和可持续发展工程动员资源,以及建立一个应急储备安排(Contingent Reserve Arrangement)以通过货币互换提供流动性。

布雷顿森林会议是历史上国际经济合作最伟大的范例之一。而尽管没人能说金砖国家的最近举动能够成功,但它们构成了对布雷顿森林机构的重大挑战,后者应该有所回应。反思美元在国际货币体系中的作用是其中的应有之义。

布雷顿森林体系的一个关键特征是各国将汇率与美元绑定。尽管该体系在1971年已事实解体,但美元在国际货币体系中的核心地位并未受到动摇——许多国家日益不愿接受这一现实。

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