ما بعد الدولار

نيويورك ــ إنه لمما يحمل دلالة رمزية أن تُعقَد قمة دول البريكس في فولتاريزا بالبرازيل بعد سبعة عقود بالضبط من انعقاد مؤتمر بريتون وودز الذي أنشأ صندوق النقد الدولي والبنك الدولي. وكانت نتيجة اجتماع قمة مجموعة دول البريكس (البرازيل وروسيا والهند والصين وجنوب أفريقيا) الإعلان عن تأسيس بنك التنمية الجديد، والذي سيحشد الموارد لتنفيذ مشاريع البنية الأساسية والتنمية المستدامة، فضلاً عن الاتفاق على ترتيبات احتياطية لتوفير السيولة من خلال مقايضة العملات.

كان مؤتمر بريتون وودز أحد أعظم أمثلة التاريخ من التعاون الاقتصادي الدولي. ورغم أن لا أحد يستطيع أن يجزم بعد ما إذا كانت مبادرات دول البريكس سوف تنجح، فإنها تمثل تحدياً كبيراً لمؤسسات بريتون وودز، التي ينبغي لها أن تستجيب. وتشكل إعادة النظر في الدور الذي يلعبه الدولار الأميركي في النظام النقدي الدولي مثالاً واضحاً لهذا.

كان ربط الدول لأسعار صرف عملاتها بالدولار الأميركي من بين السمات الرئيسية التي ميزت نظام بريتون وودز. ورغم انتهاء العمل بهذا النظام فعلياً في عام 1971، فقد ظل دور الدولار الأميركي المركزي في النظام النقدي الدولي باقيا ــ وهي الحقيقة التي أصبحت بلدان عديدة غير مستعدة لتقبلها.

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