Europa: un estallido procedente del pasado

BERLÍN – Si hay un episodio histórico que aún hace estremecerse a la mayoría de los europeos, incluso un siglo después, es el estallido de la primera guerra mundial, la catástrofe europea de consecuencias trascendentales que comenzó en los últimos días de julio de 1914. En realidad, exactamente cien años después, tras dos guerras mundiales y una guerra fría, el estremecimiento es más pronunciado que nunca.

En vista de la sangrienta historia de Europa, los Estados que crearon la Unión Europea actual optaron por la no violencia, la inviolabilidad de las fronteras, la democracia y el Estado de derecho. Optaron por la cooperación, incluso la integración, en lugar de la confrontación militar y el desarrollo económico en lugar de la política de poder, pero esta “Europa de la UE” se esta viendo lanzada atrás en el tiempo y desafiada, una vez más, por el regreso de la política de poder en sus fronteras y en su vecindad inmediata.

En el Este, el Kremlin del Presidente Vladimir Putin quiere cambiar las fronteras nacionales por la fuerza y conseguir así el resurgimiento de Rusia como potencia imperial mundial. Entretanto, el caos y la violencia –más marcados en Siria, el Iraq y Gaza que en ninguna otra parte– amenazan con invadir todo Oriente Medio y ponen en entredicho la integridad territorial de Estados que en gran medida son consecuencia del acuerdo de paz tras la primera guerra mundial.

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