A Europa regressa ao passado

BERLIM – Se há um episódio histórico que ainda causa calafrios à maioria dos europeus, mesmo decorrido um século, é o deflagrar da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a grande catástrofe europeia que teve início nos últimos dias de Julho de 1914. Na verdade, exactamente cem anos mais tarde, após duas guerras mundiais e uma guerra fria, tais calafrios surgem mais pronunciados do que nunca.

Considerando a história sangrenta da Europa, os países que estabeleceram a União Europeia de hoje optaram pela não-violência, a inviolabilidade das fronteiras, a democracia e o Estado de direito. Escolheram a cooperação, e até a integração, em vez do confronto militar, e o desenvolvimento económico em vez da política de poder. No entanto, o regresso da política de poder no que diz respeito às suas fronteiras e vizinhança imediata leva a "Europa da UE" a recuar no tempo, desafiando-a uma vez mais.

No Leste, o Kremlin do presidente Vladimir Putin pretende mudar as fronteiras nacionais pela força e, deste modo, garantir o regresso da Rússia como potência imperial mundial. Entretanto, o caos e a violência (mais pronunciados na Síria, no Iraque e em Gaza) ameaçam invadir todo o Médio Oriente, desafiando a integridade territorial dos Estados na sua maioria resultantes do acordo de paz estabelecido por ocasião da Primeira Guerra Mundial.

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