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La progression des nationalistes européens

BERLIN – L’Europe est, depuis des centaines d’années, constituée de nations, raison pour laquelle l’unification du  continent est une tâche politique aussi compliquée, aujourd’hui encore. Mais le nationalisme n’est pas le principe constructeur de l’Europe ; bien au contraire, il a sans cesse été, et l’est toujours, son principe de déconstruction. C’est le principal enseignement à retenir des progrès spectaculaires enregistrés par les partis populistes opposés à l’Union européenne lors des élections au Parlement européen en mai dernier.

C’est un enseignement que tous les Européens auraient du retenir, et depuis longtemps. Les guerres européennes du XXe siècle – qui ont manqué détruire le continent – ont toutes été livrées au nom du nationalisme. Lors de son discours d’adieu au Parlement européen, François Mitterrand a condensé une vie d’expérience politique en une seul phrase : « Le nationalisme, c’est la guerre ! ».

Cet été, l’Europe commémorera le centenaire du début de la Première guerre mondiale, qui a plongé l’Europe dans les abysses de la violence nationaliste moderne. Le continent célébrera également le 70ème anniversaire du débarquement des Alliés en Normandie, qui fera pencher l’issue de la Seconde guerre mondiale en faveur de la démocratie en l’Europe de l’Ouest (et plus tard, après la fin de la Guerre froide, dans toute l’Europe).

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